Keeping track of AssetBundles

Sometimes it’s necessary to load and unload content at runtime. Games which take place in an expansive, explorable world, for instance, probably shouldn’t load the entire play-space up front. Every area, from the dankest catacomb to the loftiest castle, would need to be read from long-term storage and buffered into memory before the game could be played. Doing so would contribute to long load-times, and cause often insurmountable memory problems! Unfortunately, we don’t yet live in an era where a game-maker can reasonably expect players to have computers, consoles, and mobile devices capable of loading 30 gigabytes of dirt textures into memory.

The Unity game engine has long struggled with this problem. Multiple solutions for asset streaming exist, but all are far from perfect.

Perhaps the most convenient streaming solution in Unity is the Resources API. Added in the early days of the engine, it allows assets to be loaded and unloaded using two simple functions.

public static T Resources.Load<T>(string path);

public static void Resources.UnloadAsset(Object assetToUnload);

Look at that! It’s a simple interface which can easily be rolled into any custom asset management code you might want! It’s easy to read, intuitive, requires no special handling… and it’s terrible…

What’s wrong with Resources?

Unity itself strongly recommends against using the Resources API. To reiterate the official arguments, the Resources API makes it much more difficult to manage memory carefully. This might seem like a moot point, but on memory constrained platforms like Mobile devices, this can cause issues. Fragmentation of the heap is a very real concern, especially when loading and unloading many large objects. Additional, the official injunction omits the fact that the Resources API compiles all referenced resources into a single bundle at build-time, meaning the maximum total size of your resources are restricted to the maximum size of a single file on the user’s machine! On most machines, this will be either 2 or 4 gigabytes! Not nearly enough to represent that massive world you and your team have been planning!

So what’s the alternative?

Unity added an alternative method for streaming assets sometime in the late 2000’s known as “Asset Bundles“. AssetBundles are compressed archives of content which can be loaded and unloaded on the fly in your application. Games can even download AssetBundles from a server to perform partial updates, and pull down large chunks of data at a time (useful for games like MMOs, which can’t feasibly store the entire world at once).

Yes, AssetBundles are wonderful, but all that flexibility isn’t without its downsides. Long gone are the days of “Resources.Load()”. AssetBundles require a slew of management. Loading bundles, loading dependencies, shifting around manifests, and compulsively version-checking your data are unfortunate requirements of the system. To poorly paraphrase Uncle Ben from the 2002 film adaptation of Spider-Man, “With great interface flexibility, comes a need for specificity.”

What can be done?

The job of a programmer is one of abstraction. I set out to write a facade over the AssetBundle system as an “exploratory exercise.” Surely, there’s a way to keep track of assets, their dependencies, and their lifespans without having to manually modify each piece of code we write!

I decided to adapt a concept from the Objective-C runtime. Apple’s OSX and iOS SDKs contain a memory-managment system known as ARC (Automatic Reference Counting). Essentially, what ARC does is keep a counter running for every instance of an object in your application. When an object is referenced somewhere, that counter is incremented. When that reference goes out of scope, the counter is decremented. When the counter reaches zero, the object is destroyed.

This has the net effect of “automatically” keeping track of when an object is referenced, and when it is no longer needed, similar to the “garbage collection” systems present in many environments (including Unity’s .NET execution environment). Unlike Garbage Collection however, it tends to incur a less noticeable runtime performance cost, as instances are freed from memory continuously rather than in an occasional “clean up” pass. This is not without its downsides, but that’s another story for another post.

The important thing is that the theory can be applied to AssetBundles. Game assets are a good use case for a system like this. Assets must be loaded on demand, but in environments with limited memory, must be freed as soon as possible. Dependencies are also a very real concern. AssetBundles may depend on others for content, and it’s important to know which bundles can and can’t be unloaded safely during the execution of an application. I figured it was worth a shot, and spent a few hours looking into things…

Automatic Reference-Counted StreamedAsset API

The StreamedAsset API is fairly simple and not without its own set of issues, however as a first experiment, it does a solid job of mimicking the simplicity of the old “Resources” API.

First, I define a generic class called “StreamedAsset”. This class will act as a wrapper to handle reference-counting of an internally managed Object instance!

public sealed partial class StreamedAsset<AssetType> where AssetType : Object {

public readonly string bundleName;
public readonly string assetName;

public StreamedAsset(string bundleName, string assetName) {
this.bundleName = bundleName;
this.assetName = assetName;


~StreamedAsset() {

public static implicit operator AssetType(StreamedAsset<AssetType> streamedAsset) {
LoadAsset(streamedAsset.bundleName, streamedAsset.assetName);
return m_loadedAssets[streamedAsset.assetName] as AssetType;


First, a StreamedAsset contains a “bundleName” and “assetName” field. These fields contain the name of the AssetBundle containing the desired asset, and the name of that asset itself, respectively.

You’ll notice two lines in both the initializer, and finalizer of this class…


These methods increment and decrement the reference counter for the bundle and asset within that bundle. This makes it externally impossible to construct an instance of “StreamedAsset” without updating the reference counters corresponding to the asset data. The finalizer is called automatically whenever this object is destroyed by the garbage collector, so our reference counters will be correctly decremented sometime after this object goes out of scope, whenever the runtime decides it’s safe to free unnecessary memory.

You’ll also notice the “Implicit Operator” towards the end of the definition. This is how we unwrap our StreamedAsset references. The implementation of this conversion operator means that they are implicitly convertible to the contained generic type. This allows StreamedAsset instances to be used identically to a traditional reference to our asset data.

// Works

renderer.material = new Material();

// Also works!

renderer.material = new StreamedAsset<Material>(“myBundle”, “matName”);

Included in this implicit operator is a call to the “LoadAsset” function. This function will do nothing if the object is loaded, but has the effect of lazily loading the asset in question. Therefore, StreamedAsset references can be instantiated, duplicated, and passed around the application without ever actually loading the asset from the AssetBundle! You can define a thousand references to a thousand assets, but until they’re actually used for something, they remain unloaded.  Placing the lazy load function in the implicit unwrap operator also allows assets to be unloaded when they’re referenced, but not used (though this behavior is not implemented in this demo project).

Now, our asset exists, but what about the actual loading and unloading?

StreamedAsset Internals

I made the StreamedAsset API a partial class, allowing it to be separated into multiple files. While the management of asset data and the asset reference type should be contained in different places, the management should still be completely internal to the StreamedAsset type. They are fundamentally inseparable, and it should not be externally accessible!

public sealed partial class StreamedAsset<AssetType> {

private static SynchronizationContext m_unitySyncContext;

private static Dictionary<string, AssetBundle> m_loadedBundles = new Dictionary<string, AssetBundle>();
private static Dictionary<string, Object> m_loadedAssets = new Dictionary<string, Object>();

private static Dictionary<string, uint> m_bundleRefCount = new Dictionary<string, uint>();
private static Dictionary<string, uint> m_assetRefCount = new Dictionary<string, uint>();

static StreamedAsset() {
m_unitySyncContext = SynchronizationContext.Current;

private static void ReferenceAsset(string name) {
if (!m_assetRefCount.ContainsKey(name))
m_assetRefCount.Add(name, 0);
m_assetRefCount[name] ++;


private static void DereferenceAsset(string name) {
m_assetRefCount[name] –;

if (m_assetRefCount[name] <= 0) {
// Dereferencing is handled through finalizers, which are run on
// background threads. Execute the unloading on the Unity sync context.
m_unitySyncContext.Post(_ => {
}, null);

private static void ReferenceBundle(string name) {
if (!m_bundleRefCount.ContainsKey(name))
m_bundleRefCount.Add(name, 0);
m_bundleRefCount[name] ++;


private static void DereferenceBundle(string name) {
m_bundleRefCount[name] –;

if (m_bundleRefCount[name] <= 0) {
// Dereferencing is handled through finalizers, which are run on
// background threads. Execute the unloading on the Unity sync context.
m_unitySyncContext.Post((context) => {
UnloadBundle(context as string);
}, name);

private static void LoadBundle(string bundleName) {
if (m_loadedBundles.ContainsKey(bundleName))

var path = System.IO.Path.Combine(Application.streamingAssetsPath, bundleName);
var bundle = AssetBundle.LoadFromFile(path);
m_loadedBundles.Add(bundleName, bundle);

private static void UnloadBundle(string bundleName) {
var bundle = m_loadedBundles[bundleName];

if (bundle != null) {

private static void LoadAsset(string bundleName, string assetName) {
if (m_loadedAssets.ContainsKey(assetName))

var asset = m_loadedBundles[bundleName].LoadAsset(assetName);
m_loadedAssets.Add(assetName, asset);

private static void UnloadAsset(string assetName) {
var asset = m_loadedAssets[assetName];

// if (asset != null) {
//  Resources.UnloadAsset(asset);
// }

This portion of the StreamedAsset class does exactly what it looks like, implementing functions to load, and unload asset bundles, as well as method to increment and decrement reference counts.

An important thing to note is the use of a “SynchronizationContext” to unload assets. The finalizer for object instances in Unity is executed on a background thread dedicated to garbage collection. As a result, all functions called from a finalizer will be executed on this background thread. Unfortunately, Unity’s Scripting API is not thread-safe! The static initializer is therefore used to capture a reference to the SynchronizationContext of Unity’s main thread, and all requests to unload assets are handled through this context.

Another note is the use of the “Resources.UnloadUnusedAssets()” method. While the Resources API is deprecated, a number of asset management functions are still grouped under the “Resource” umbrella. “Resources.UnloadAsset()”, and “Resources.UnloadUnusedAssets()” can actually be used to unload assets loaded from AssetBundles. This is never explicitly documented, however it is supported, and is clearly intended functionality. In the example, “UnloadUnusedAssets()” is used because it also unloads the dependencies of the dereferenced asset. This function has large performance implications, and should probably not be called so liberally, but as stated earlier, is useful for prototyping.

That’s really all there is to it! A custom build script can be included to construct bundles of streamed assets for the target platform, and copy them into the StreamingAssets “magic directory”. From there, the StreamedAsset API can be used to load them on the fly without ever having to worry about the nitty gritty of managing references!

Room for Improvement!

This is clearly not a perfect solution! The first and foremost issue is that the lifecycle of a streamed asset is tied to the lifecycle of its “StreamedAsset” references, rather than the asset itself.

For example, assigning a implicitly converted StreamedAsset directly to a built-in Unity component will cause that asset to be unloaded as soon as garbage is collected. Assets must instead be maintained at a higher level than function-scope.

private StreamedAsset m_goodMat = new StreamedAsset<Material>(“myBundle”, “myMat”);

void Start() {

var badMat = new StreamedAsset<Material>(“myBundle”, “myMat”);

obj1.GetComponent<Renderer>().material = badMat

// At this point, “badMat” will go out of scope, and the material will become null at some point in the future.

obj2.GetComponent<Renderer>().material = m_goodMat;

// “m_goodMat” however will share the life cycle of this behaviour instance, and will persist for the lifespan of the object.


This is an unfortunate downside of the implicit conversion. As far as I can tell, it isn’t possible to retroactively embed automatic reference counting in the UnityEngine.Material instance itself, though a higher-level “management” solution warrants further investigation.

Final Words

I’m fairly happy with this little experiment, though I would advise against using it in a production environment without further testing. Regardless, I think reference-counted assets have potential in larger games. Not having to worry explicitly about asset loading and unloading trades performance for ease of use, but for many games, I’m willing to bet that’s a worthwhile trade. I’m curious to see what else can be done with a more “automatic” system such as this!


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